Conversion by the Book: Buddhist Print Culture in Early Republican China
經典佛化: 民國初期佛教出版文化

Ph.D. Dissertation, Columbia University, 2013

Gregory Adam Scott 史瑞戈
gas2122@spamcolumbia.eduspam (Remove the spam to email)

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In this dissertation I argue that print culture acted as a catalyst for change among Buddhists in modern China. Through examining major publication institutions, publishing projects, and their managers and contributors from the late nineteenth century to the 1920s, I show that the expansion of the scope and variety of printed works, as well as new the social structures surrounding publishing, substantially impacted the activity of Chinese Buddhists. In doing so I hope to contribute to ongoing discussions of the ‘revival’ of Chinese Buddhism in the modern period, and demonstrate that publishing, propelled by new print technologies and new forms of social organization, was a key field of interaction and communication for religious actors during this era, one that helped make possible the introduction and adoption of new forms of religious thought and practice.

本論文的論點是出版文化在近代中國佛教人物之中,扮演了變化觸媒的角色. 通過研究從十九世紀末到二十世紀二十年代的主要的出版機構, 種類, 及其主辦人物與提供貢獻者, 論文說明佛教印刷的多元化 以及範圍的大量擴展, 再加上跟出版有關的社會結構, 對中國佛教人物的活動都發生了顯著的影響. 此研究顯示在被新印刷技術與新形式的社會結構的推進下的出版事業, 為該時代的宗教人物展開一種新的相互連結與構通的場域, 因而使新的宗教思想與實踐的引入成為可能. 此論文試圖對現行關於近代中國佛教的所謂'復興'的討論提出貢獻.

Funding in support of this dissertation was generously provided by the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, the Department of Religion, and the Weatherhead Institute at Columbia University, a Cihui Foundation Fellowship and a C. Martin Wilbur Fellowship, a Chiang Ching-kuo Foundation Dissertation Fellowship which allowed me to be a visiting research fellow at the Institute of Modern History at Academia Sinica in Taiwan, and a Sheng Yen Education Foundation Grant for Ph.D. Dissertation Research 聖嚴教育基金會漢傳佛教博士論文獎學金, which supported me for the final year of my dissertation project.

Introduction: Print Culture and Religion in Modern China
Portions of this chapter appear in a revised format in the introduction to Religious Publishing and Print Culture in Modern China, 1800-2012, ed. Philip Clart and Gregory Adam Scott (Boston; Berlin: De Gruyter, 2015).

1. Prolegomena
2. Theories of Religion and Secularization
3. Holmes Welch and Paradigms of Modern Chinese Buddhism
4. Theories of Print Culture
5. Project Outline

Chapter One: Buddhist Xylographic Publishing in the Late Qing and Early Republic

1. Introduction
2. Medieval and Early-Modern Scriptural Publishing
3. Yang Wenhui 楊文會 and the Jinling Scriptural Press 金陵刻經處
4. Xu Weiru 徐蔚如, the Beijing and Tianjin Scriptural Presses, and Scripture Distributors
5. Conclusion

Chapter Two: Mechanized Movable Type and the Kalaviṇka Canon, 1909 - 1913

1. Introduction
2. The Arrival of Mechanized Movable Type
3. Editing and Printing the Canon
4. Publicizing the Canon
5. Conclusion

Chapter Three: Publishing Revolution in Early Chinese Buddhist Periodicals, 1912 – 1918
Edited and revised version of this chapter will be published as "A Revolution of Ink: Chinese Buddhist Periodicals in the Early Republic" in Recovering Buddhism in Modern China, ed. Jan Kiely and J. Brooks Jessup (New York: Columbia University Press, forthcoming).

1. Introduction
2. Foxue congbao 佛學叢報 (Buddhist Studies Magazine, 1912 – 1914)
3. Fojiao yuebao 佛教月報 (Buddhist Monthly, 1913)
4. Jueshe congshu 覺社叢書 (Awakening Society Collectanea, 1918 – 1919)
5. Conclusion

Chapter Four: Navigating the Sea of Scriptures: Ding's Buddhist Studies Collectanea, 1918 – 1923
Edited and revised version of this chapter has been published in Religious Publishing and Print Culture in Modern China, 1800-2012, ed. Philip Clart and Gregory Adam Scott (Boston; Berlin: De Gruyter, 2015).

1. Introduction
2. Ding Fubao and the Structure of his Series
3. Illuminating Scriptures with Exegesis, Awakening Faith with Evidence
4. Buddhist Lexicography
5. Conclusion

Chapter Five: Opening the Dharma Bridge: Periodical, Scriptural, and Commercial Publishing, 1920 – 1929

1. Introduction
2. Haichao yin 海潮音 (Voice of the Sea Tide, 1920 –)
3. Neixue 內學 (Inner Studies, 1923 – 1928) and the Publications of the Inner Studies Institute
4. Scriptural and Commercial Presses of the 1920s
5. Conclusion


Appendix: The Digital Bibliography of Chinese Buddhism

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