This list is intended to supplement the guides and collections of bookmarks currently available online. The linked resources are not maintained by me; I've only collected those which are potentially useful to scholars and researchers studying Buddhist religious traditions in China. If you find that any links are dead, resources have moved or want to suggest a resource please email [gregory.scott(use @ at)]. This page is maintained by Gregory Adam Scott 史瑞戈.

The OICB was first compiled and published on August 26, 2006. It was moved to in late 2011.

Please note that the OICB is no longer being updated, since it's now possible to discover new resources through a range of media (Facebook groups, Twitter, etc.) but is being archived here for future reference.

Please note that some resources are listed with their Chinese or Japanese names; you may need to download language packs or fonts to have the characters display properly.


1. Language and Fonts
2. Texts
3. Dictionaries
4. Groups and Associations
5. Specific Topics
6. Collected Links, Bibliographies, and Guides

1. Language and Fonts
Tools for mastering the languages required for study, including but not limited to Modern and Classical Chinese, Modern and Classical Japanese, and Sanskrit.

Charis SIL Font
A font family especially useful for displaying diacritical and phonetic marks.

Gentium Fonts
A series of fonts that display unicode symbols well on many platforms. Useful for displaying Sanskrit, Chinese, etc. diacritics.

IndUni Fonts
GPL-licensed, Unicode-compliant OpenType fonts that include diacritic marks for rendering scriptural languages and "Indological" characters. Includes fonts similar to Courier, Helvetica, New Century Schoolbook, Palatino, and Times. Freely availible to download and distribute under the provisions of the GPL.

Technology Development for Indian Languages
Free electronic resources (including Sanskrit fonts) provided by the Department of Communication and Information Technology, Government of India.

Pinyin to Wade-Giles to Zhuyin Conversion Table
Invaluable for those old texts. Page uses BIG5 encoding which must be set manually if you can't see the Zhuyin symbols.

Traditional Chinese (and Japanese) Unicode Fonts
A collection of links to free fonts offered elsewhere on the web. Japanese fonts also available.

2. Texts
Digitized source texts available online. They have the advantage of being searchable and are often edited and corrected versions of the originals.

Bao Foen Wang 報佛恩網
Images, articles, and electronic texts for several masters of the modern era, including Yuanying, Hongyi, and Yin'guang.

Buddhist Digital Library and Museum 佛學數位圖書館暨博物館
Hosted by the College of Liberal Arts, National Taiwan University. Includes language lessons for Tibetan, Sanskrit and Pali, as well as fulltext documents and sutras.
The Special Collections are particularly interesting, and include some rare digitized texts, both monographs and periodicals.

Buddhist Temple Gazetteers 中國佛教寺廟志數位典藏
An ongoing project to digitize temple gazetteers, 224 are currently online as scanned images with 13 also having full-text and image availible. A project of the Dharma Drum Buddhist College.

Brill E-Books
Electronic versions of books published by Brill. Especially relevant are the sections on Religious Studies and Asian Studies (site no longer allows direct links to sections).

Chinese Buddhist Electronic Text Association (CBETA) 中華電子佛典協會
Search and download full texts available online. This collection is also available as a CDROM for offline viewing.

Digital Edition of Samuel Beal's Translation of the Datang xiyu ji 大唐西域記
A digitized version of Si-yu-ki. Buddhist Records of the Western World - Translated from the Chinese of Hiuen Tsang (AD 629)

Early Buddhist Manuscripts Project
Some very early Buddhist texts that appear to share archetypes with later East Asian Buddhist texts.

Electronic Buddhadharma Society 佛教電腦資訊庫功德會
Buddhist texts available online to read or download. Link goes to traditional character index.

The International Dunhuang Project 國際敦煌項目 Links added
An international project to catalogue and organize Dunhuang and Silk Road texts, many of which are available online. Also maintains a news blog The National Library of China maintains a project site.

The International Research Institute for Advanced Buddhology
This institute, located at Soka University, makes its publications availible online, including:
Sanskrit Manuscripts in the British Library
Annual Report of The International Research Institute for Advanced Buddhology at Soka University

London Missionary Society Collection at the National Library of Australia
Digitized documents that were published by the London Missionary Society in China, many of which touch upon Buddhist figures, texts, and organizations, as well as the general religious context of the time. See also this staff paper on the collection from 1998.

Numata Center for Buddhist Translation and Research: Digital Texts
Free downloadable PDF versions of BDK English Tripitaka texts. Three texts were made available at launch, with more to follow.

The SAT Daizōkyō Database 大正新脩大藏經テキストデータベース
The full text of the 85 volume of Taishō Shinshu Daizōkyō, browsable and searchable.

Sea of Wisdom Texts 般若文海
Numerous online texts, from scriptures to commentaries.

SOAS Digital Archives and Special Collections
Digital texts and resources from the libraries of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London.

Sutta Central
An online correspondence between early Buddhist texts in various languages, including Chinese.

Thesaurus Literaturae Buddhicae (TLB)
Multilingual collection of digitized Buddhist texts hosted by the University of Oslo.

Treasury of Chinese Buddhist Texts 中華佛典寶庫
Although their main collection of texts appears to be an archived copy of those available on CBETA, there are other tools available on this site, including dictionaries. Also includes a number of non-canonical 藏外 texts. Link goes to the server hosted in Xiamen 廈門.

WWW Database of Chinese Buddhist Texts
A list of extant Chinese Buddhist texts and their index number in different canons.

3. Dictionaries
Online dictionaries of Buddhist terms or dealing with a source language.

Cojak Hanzi Dictionary: Unihan Hanzi Radical Dictionary
Takes the Unicode database of characters as its basis, provides different East Asian readings for each character, as well as a brief English definition. Also includes indices organized by HSK level and USENET frequency of use. Requires a font that includes as many character gylphs as possible to be used effectively, such as SimSun (Founder Extended).

Chinese Character Dictionary 漢字字典 Link Updated
Allow searches by multiple methods and character coding systems. Lists pronunciations in different dialects and links to other dictionaries.

Chinese-English Dictionary of Modern Usage 當代漢英詞典
Digitized version of the dictionary by Lin Yutang 林語堂.

Dictionary of Chinese Character Variants 異體字字典
Online dictionary of different forms of Chinese characters hosted by the National Languages Committee of the ROC.

Dictionary of Chinese Idioms
Searchable online dictionary of idioms (chengyu 成語).

Digital Dictionary of Buddhism (DDB)
A dictionary and encyclopedia of Buddhist topics. Incorporates the Soothill-Hodous dictionary formerly listed here. Many libraries have subscribed for full access, otherwise users can only make a limited number of searches per day.

Ding's Great Dictionary of Buddhist Studies, HTML Version 丁氏佛學大辭典
HTML version of the 1922 dictionary by Ding Fubao 丁福保 Also mirrored at

DimSum Chinese Language Tool
DimSum is a stand-alone program that gives you a popup window when you mouseover a character. You can also add pinyin annotation to files.

Foguang Dictionary 佛光大辭典
Chinese-language dictionary of Buddhist terms, compiled and hosted by Foguang shan in southern Taiwan. Freely available.

French-English Dictionary
A comprehensive bilingual dictionary and collection of language learning tools.

Introduction to Chinese Buddhist Reference Books 中文佛教工具書簡介
A listing of different Chinese Buddhist reference books, their provenance and contents.

Jim Breen's WWWJDIC Japanese-English Dictionary Server
Searchable dictionary, automatic translation, with several dictionary databases to choose from, one of which is a selection of entries from the Digital Dictionary of Buddhism (above). A complete list of mirror sites is available.

Handian 漢典
Online dictionary that offers multuiple character definitions as well as digitized entries from the Kangxi dictionary and the Shuowen Jiezi 說文解字. Main interface is in Simplified, but the Kangxi and Shuowen sections are in Traditional characters.

Online Japanese Dictionaries and Glossaries - An Annotated Catalogue
Collection of annotated links to online Japanese dictionaries.

The Online Kangxi Dictionary 康熙字典網上版
The mother of all Chinese dictionaries (not literally). This site does not seem to offer a radical search option. You can also view the scanned pages of the original.

A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary
Digitized version of Arthur Anthony Macdonell's dictionary of 1929, hosted by the University of Chicago.

An extension for Firefox, provides dictionary translations for Japanese text when you mouseover a word. Note that you must install the extension and a dictionary for it to work.

Smart Hanzi and Smart Kanji
A parser for Chinese and Japanese texts, incorporates the DDB and the Soothill-Houdous dictionary.
Some handy searchable, bilingual dictionaries for several Western languages.

4. Groups and Associations
Religious and charitable organizations.

The Buddhist Association of the Republic of China 中國佛教會
First founded in 1912, and disbanded and reorganized several times since then, this national association is still active in Taiwan, ROC.

Dharma Drum Mountain 法鼓山
Internationally active group based in Taiwan, founded by Master Shengyan 聖嚴大師. Organization behind Dharma Drum Buddhist College.

Fo Guang Shan 佛光山
Originally founded in Gaoxiong 高雄, now has branch temples around the world.

Modern Chinese Buddhism Scholars' List
A Yahoo group for scholars of Modern Chinese Buddhism.

Tzu Chi Foundation 慈濟基金會
A not-for-profit organization well-known for their international relief efforts.

5. Specific Topics
Sites that focus on a specific area, time period, or school within the field.

Buddhist Temples in Taiwan
Database of geographical and historical information about Buddhist institutions in Taiwan.

British Library Online Gallery - Silk Road
Visual and textual resources on the silk road, including a 3D Diamond Sutra.

Chinese Buddhist Canon [video]
Video recording of the opening session and keynote speech by Lewis Lancaster at a conference on the Chinese Buddhist canon held in Tucson, Arizona from March 26 to 27, 2011.

Digital Silk Roads [ディジタル・シルクロード・プロジェクト]
Resources on Buddhism in Central Asia and China along the 'silk road'.

Tibet - American Geographical Society Library
Historical maps and photographs of Tibet from the holdings of the American Geographical Society (AGS) Library.

The Tibetan and Himalayan Digital Library 雪域數碼圖書館
Multimedia resources on Tibet and surrounding regions

Yogacara Buddhism Research Association 唯識法相佛教協會
Resources on the Weishi 唯識 school of Buddhism.

6. Collected Links, Bibliographies, and Guides
Sites in this category are lists and collections of links, as well as more traditional bibliographies of print resources. There are also guides to researching Chinese Buddhism, created by universities or professors for their students and scholars to consult.

About Buddhism in China
Alphabetized bibliography of mostly print sources.

Bibliographical Sources for Buddhist Studies from the Viewpoint of Buddhist Philology Link Updated
An annotated bibiliography compiled by Yasuhiro Sueki.

Bibliography of Western Language Publications on Chinese Popular Religion (1995-present)
Focused on Chinese popular religion rather than Buddhism, but certainly an invaluable resource for studying Chinese Religion in general or Buddhism at the local/popular level.

Buddhist Studies WWW Virtual Library
A collection of links to online resources grouped by categories.

Book Catalogue of Classical Jodo shu Literature 浄土教典籍目録 [link updated]
An annotated bibiliography of Indian, Tibetan, Chinese, Korean, and Japanese sources on Pure Land topics. Digital version of the print edition.

China Historical GIS (CHGIS)
Now includes a dataset of Chinese Buddhist temples circa 1820, one version of which can be viewed using Google Earth. Downloading requires a (free) registration. For details on how the set was compiled, see the production notes.

China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI)
Main English portal for a national e-publishing project that contains links to many online resources for the study of China.

Chinese Names of Western Scholars: a Directory
A work in progress, attempting to connect Western names of well-known scholars with Chinese rednerings of their names.

Chinese Religious Culture: A Research Guide
A complete guide to printed and electronic resources for researching religious culture in China by Barend ter Haar.

Chronology of Republican-era Buddhism
A list of major events in Chinese Buddhism through the Republican period, originally published in Dec. 1944 by Chenkong 塵空.

DDBC Authority Database Project
Includes Time, Person, and Place databases of data from Buddhist sources.

DDBC Integrated Search
Search all of Dharma Drum Buddhist College's online resources from a single interface.

East Asian Buddhist Studies: A Reference Guide
Comprehensive bibliography of sources.

Effective Videos/YouTube Clips for Teaching Buddhism
A list of links to videos, YouTube clips, and online lectures suggested by H-Buddhism subscribers.

Encyclopedia of Buddhism 佛教百科
A wiki of articles on Buddhist topics, mostly copied from print sources.

H-Buddhism Discussion Network
A discussion list for specialists in Buddhist studies.

Handbook to the Collections of Sir Aurel Stein in the UK
An online guide to materials relating to Sir Marc Aurel Stein (1862-1943), archaeologist and historian of Central Asia and China. Also see the more recent publication Sir Aurel Stein: Colleagues and Collections

INBUDS - Indian and Buddhist Studies Treatise Database インド学仏教学論文データベース
Collected bibliographical information on articles and studies published on Buddhism, including Chinese and Japanese Buddhism.

Indica et Buddhica
Collected tables of contents for journals dealing with Buddhist subjects, including Chinese Buddhism.

Internet Guide for Chinese Studies
Collection of links to Chinese Studies resources, with a section on Buddhist resources.

Minguo Fojiao wenxian suoyin 民國佛教文獻索引 Index of Republican-era Buddhist Literature [NEW]
A searchable index of newspaper and other periodical articles from Republican-era Buddhist publications. Appears to covers periodicals that were not included in the MFQ and MFQB collections.

Religious Culture in 20th Century China
Bibliography of print resources on religious culture in China from 1911 to the present, also by ter Haar.

Resources for the Study of Buddhism
Links to pages about basic Buddhist concepts and teachings.

WWW Virtual Library: Chinese History
Online research tools for different aspects of Chinese history.

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